Gymnopus dryophilus: The Russet Toughshank Mushroom

Gymnopus dryophilus (Bull.) Murrill.


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
Class Basidiomycetes
Order Agaricales
Family Tricholomataceae
Genus Gymnopus


Agaricus dryophilus Bull.
  Herbier de la France 10: tab. 434 (1790)
Collybia aquosa var. dryophila (Bull.) Krieglst.
  in Krieglsteiner, Ahnert, Endt, Enderle & Ostrow, Beitr. Kenntn. Pilze Mitteleur. 13: 36 (2000)
Collybia dryophila (Bull.) P. Kumm.
  Führ. Pilzk. (Zwickau): 115 (1871)
Collybia dryophila var. alvearis Cooke
  Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 3: 110 (1908)
Collybia dryophila var. aurata Quél.
  Enchir. fung. (Paris): 31 (1886)
Marasmius dryophilus (Bull.) P. Karst.
  Kritisk Öfversigt af Finlands Basidsvampar, Tillägg: 103 (1889)
Marasmius dryophilus var. alvearis (Cooke) Rea
Marasmius dryophilus var. auratus (Quél.) Rea
  Brit. basidiomyc. (Cambridge): 524 (1922)
Omphalia dryophilus (Bull.) Gray
 Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London): 612 (1821)

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Medicinal properties

Antiinflammatory activity

One study extracted a β-glucan (MW=1.237 x 106 Da) consisting of (1→3) and (1→4) glucosidic linkages and named Collybia dryophila polysaccharide (CDP). CDP was shown to strongly inhibit nitric oxide production in activated macrophages, suggesting that this polysaccharide displays a potential anti-inflammatory activity (Pacheco-Sanchez et al., 2006).
The effect of CDP was evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma interferon (IFNγ) or by LPS alone in RAW 264.7 cells. CDP significantly inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. The inhibition of NO by CDP was consistent with decreases in both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression suggesting that CDP exerts its effect by inhibiting iNOS gene expression. In addition, CDP at concentrations of 400 and 800 µg/ml was shown to significantly increase prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS- and IFNγ-induced macrophages when compared to the control (Pacheco-Sanchez et al., 2007).


Pacheco-Sanchez M, Boutin Y, Angers P, Gosselin A, Tweddell RJ.
Inhibitory effect of CDP, a polysaccharide extracted from the mushroom Collybia dryophila, on nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in macrophages.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 555(1):61-6.

Pacheco-Sanchez M, Boutin Y, Angers P, Gosselin A, Tweddell RJ.
A bioactive (1→3)-, (1→4)-β-D-glucan from Collybia dryophila and other mushrooms.
Mycologia. 2006 98(2):180-5.

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