Daedaleopsis confragosa

The thin-walled maze polyporeDaedaleopsis confragosa (Bolton) J. Schröt.

Classification

Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
Class Basidiomycetes
Order Polyporales
Family Polyporaceae
Genus Daedaleopsis

Synonyms

This species can be highly variable in appearance, and the ‘founding mycologists’ who initially examined a large array of specimens from a variety of locales had the tendency to give each a new species name, resulting in a rather large list of synonyms.

Agaricus confragosus (Bolton) Murrill
Agaricus tricolor Bull.
Amauroderma confragosum (Van der Byl) D.A. Reid
Boletus confragosus Bolton
Cellularia tricolor (Bull.) Kuntze
Daedalea bulliardii Fr.
Daedalea confragosa (Bolton) Pers.
Daedalea confragosa f. bulliardii (Fr.) Domański, Orloś & Skirg.
Daedalea confragosa f. rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Domański
Daedalea confragosa subsp. rubescens Alb. & Schwein.
Daedalea rubescens Alb. & Schwein.
Daedalea sepiaria var. tricolor (Bull.) Fr.
Daedalea tricolor (Bull.) Fr.
Daedaleopsis confragosa var. bulliardii (Fr.) Ljub.
Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolton) J. Schröt.
Daedaleopsis confragosa var. rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Ljub.
Daedaleopsis confragosa var. tricolor (Bull.) Bondartsev
Daedaleopsis rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Imazeki
Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.) Bondartsev & Singer
Ischnoderma confragosum (Bolton) Zmitr. [as ‘confragosa‘]
Ischnoderma tricolor (Bull.) Zmitr.
Lenzites confragosa (Bolton) Pat.
Lenzites tricolor (Bull.) Fr.
Lenzites tricolor var. rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Teng
Polyporus bulliardii (Fr.) Pers.
Polyporus confragosus Van der Byl
Striglia confragosa (Bolton) Kuntze
Trametes bulliardii (Fr.) Fr. [as ‘bulliardi‘]
Trametes confragosa (Bolton) Jørst.
Trametes confragosa f. bulliardi (Fr.) Pilát
Trametes confragosa f. rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Pilát
Trametes rubescens (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr.
Trametes rubescens var. tricolor (Bull.) Pilát
Trametes tricolor (Bull.) Lloyd

Common names

Thin-walled maze flat polypore
Blushing bracket

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Description

Boletus coriaceo lignosus sessilis dimidiatis, supra scabroso zonatus subfuscus, carne ferrugineo-pallide, tubis cinereis poris multiformis. (Bolton, 1791.  Halifax Fung. Suppl. 3:160)

The genus name Daedaleopsis is a reference to Daedalus, the labyrinth-maker of myth. Similarly, the maze-like pattern of pores is taxonomically described as being daedaloid.

Fruiting body: sessile or with a reduced base, fan-shaped, plane, 1-5 x 1.5-8 cm wide, 0.2-2 cm thick, sometimes laterally connected, leathery to corky, surface velvety initially, turning glabrous, zonate, radiate rugose, russet brown to liver purple, fading to cinnamon brown or cinnamon, finally turning to greyish white; margin thin, acute, wavy.
Context: 0.1-0.2 cm thick, pale buff to brown.
Tubes: often variable in shape; white to brown, sometimes bruising pink; 1-6 mm broad, 0.5-1.5 mm wide, often forked, and anastomose behind, edge wavy, sometimes dentate.
Spores: cylindrical, hyaline, smooth, nonamyloid, 7-9 x 1.5-3 µm.
Spore print: white.
Habitat: on rotten wood of willow, birch, linden, oak, dogwood, alder, maple and other kinds of trees.

This fungus causes a white rot of dead hardwoods and conifers.

Fragments of a 7000-year old polypore discovered in several huts of a Neolithic village in Rome were DNA sequenced and determined to be Daedaleopsis tricolor, suggesting that our early ancestors were aware of this fungus’ medicinal qualities (Bernicchia et al., 2006).


Bioactive compounds

Triterpenes

The triterpenes 3α-carboxyacetoxyquercinic acid (A), 3α-carboxyacetoxy-24-methylene-23-oxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid (B) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (C) were isolated from D. confragosa (Rösecke and König, 2000).

(A) 3α-carboxyacetoxyquercinic acid
3a-carboxyacetoxyquercinic acid from the medicinal mushroom Daedaleopsis confragosa
(B) 3α-carboxyacetoxy-24-methylene-23-oxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid
3a-carboxyacetoxy-24-methylene-23-oxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid from the medicinal mushroom Daedaleopsis confragosa
(C) 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (ergosterol peroxide).
ergosterol peroxide from the medicinal mushroom Daedaleopsis confragosa

Lectins from D. confragosa, tested against rabbit and human erythrocytes, were determined to have anti-H serological specificity (Pemberton 1994).

Sterols

A novel sterol, ergosta-5,8,24(28)-trien-3β-ol, was isolated from the fruit bodies of Daedaleopsis tricolor together with ten known sterols (Yaoita, 2002).

Phospholipids/Fatty acids

Analysis of the lipid and fatty acid composition revealed that D. confragosa contains 20.1% total lipids (mg/g dry weight), 32.9% neutral lipids, 53.8% phospholipid, and 13.3% glycolipids (Dembitsky et al., 1992).

An analysis of hydroxy fatty acid content showed that D. confragosa contains, as a percentage of total fatty acids, 0.02% 7-hydroxy-8,14-dimethyl-9-hexadecenoic acid and 0.01% 7-hydroxy-8,16-dimethyl-9-octadecenoic acid (Dembitsky et al., 1993).


Medicinal properties

Antibiotic effects

The compound 20(29)-lupen-3-one, purified from dried fruit bodies of D. confragosa (as D. tricolor), showed antifungal activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Microsporum gypseum, and antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Also, this compound inhibited  lipid-peroxidation by 6.4% at the concentration of 0.706 µM, showing an inhibitory effect similar to the well-known antioxidant α-tocopherol (Kim et al., 2001)

20(29)-lupen-3-one
20(29)-lupene-3-one from the medicinal mushroom Daedaleopsis confragosa
Antihypertensive effects

The blushing bracket was one of several mushrooms whose water extract was able to inhibit the activity of the zinc-containing metalloendopeptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Specifically, the IC50 against ACE was 300 µg (of extract)/ml, and 55 µg/ml against NEP (Melzig et al., 1996). The biochemical activities of these and similar metalloendopeptidases are involved in various physiological functions related to blood pressure regulation and pain suppression, and significant research has gone into finding inhibitors of these therapeutically important enzymes to serve as antihypertensive agents.

Anti-tumor effects

Polysaccharides extracted from the mycelial culture of D. confragosa and administered intraperitoneally into white mice at a dosage of 300 mg/kg inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich solid cancers by 90% (Ohtsuka et al., 1973). Later, a crude methanol extract from this species was shown to have cytoxic activity against murine cancer cell line L1210 (lymphocytic leukaemia), with an IC50 of 74.5 µg/ml (Tomasi et al., 2004).

Links

Mushroom Expert
The Fungi on Wood website has a collection of pictures and information.

References

Bernicchia A, Fugazzola MA, Gemelli V, Mantovani B, Lucchetti A, Cesari M, Speroni E.
DNA recovered and sequenced from an almost 7000 y-old Neolithic polypore, Daedaleopsis tricolor.
Mycol Res. 2006 110(Pt 1):14-7.

Dembitsky VM, Rezanka T, Shubina EE.
Unusual hydroxy fatty acids from some higher fungi
Phytochem. 1993 34(4):1057-9.

Dembitsky VM, Shubina EE, Kashin AG.
Phospholipid and fatty acid composition of some basidiomycetes.
Phytochem. 1992 31(3):845-9.

Kapich AN, Sakheyev IV, Vazhinskaya IS.
Growth of basidiomycetes Panus tigrinus (Bull, Fr) Sing IBK-131 and Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolt, Fr) Schroet G-115 in submerged culture.
Mikoligiya I Fitopatologiya. 1986 20(3):199-204.

Kim EM, Jung HR, Min TJ.
Purification, structure determination and biological activities of 20(29)-lupen-3-one from Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull. ex Fr.) Bond. et Sing.
Bull Kor Chem Soc. 2001 22(1):59-62.

Ko KS, Jung HS.
Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1999 75(3):191-9.

Melzig MF, Pieper S, Siems WE, Heder G, Bottger A, Liberra K, Lindequist U.
Screening of selected basidiomycetes for inhibitory activity on neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
Pharmazie. 1996 51(7):501-3.

Ohtsuka S, Ueno S, Yoshikumi C, Hirose F, Ohmura Y, Wada T, Fujii T, Takahashi E.
Polysaccharides having an anticarcinogenic effect and a method of producing them from species of Basidiomycetes.
UK Patent 1331513, 26 September 1973.

Pemberton RT.
Agglutinins (lectins) from some British higher fungi.
Mycol Res. 1994 98(3):277-90.

Rösecke J, König WA.
Constituents of the fungi Daedalea quercina and Daedaleopsis confragosa var. tricolor.
Phytochemistry. 2000 54(8):757-62.

Tomasi S, Lohezic-Le Devehat F, Sauleau P, Bezivin C, Boustie J.
Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts from Basidiomycete mushrooms on murine cancer cell lines.
Pharmazie. 2004 59(4):290-3.

Yaoita Y, Ebina K, Kakuda R, Machida K, Kikuchi M.
Sterol constituents from Daedaleopsis tricolor.
Natural Medicines. 2002 56(3):117-9.

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