The false shaggy mane, Podaxis pistillaris.
False shaggy mane
Gasterocarp: 2-15 cm in height, 1-4 cm broad. The surface is dry, pure white to tan, yellow-brown or brown, typically breaking up to form shaggy fibrils or scales which may eventually wear away to reveal the smooth surface underneath.
Stem: up to 1 cm diameter, pale to brown, narrowing to the top with an enlarged bulbous base.
Gleba: deep brown to black at maturity.
See here for a more complete description.
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P. pistillaris has been found in a number of locales, including:
Afghanistan (Watling and Gregory, 1977)
Africa (Dring, 1964)
Argentina (Martinez, 1971)
Australia (Hilton and Kenneally, 1981)
Brazil (Baseia and Galvão, 2002)
Congo (Dissing and Lange, 1962)
Iran (Watling and Gregory, 1977)
Israel (Dring and Rayss, 1963; Binyamini, 1973)
Pakistan (Sultana et al., 2007)
South Africa (Bottomley, 1948)
USA (Brasfield, 1937)
The fungus is typically found in semideserts, and is often associated with termite mounds. No species of the Podaxis genus has been found in Europe or Japan (Dominguez de Toledo, 1993).
The fruiting bodies of P. pistillaris are used in some parts of Yemen for the treatment of skin diseases, in South Africa as folk medicine against sunburn. In other countries, e.g. India, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia, they are used as food (Gupta and Singh, 1991). In Australia, the fungus was often used by Aborigines to darken the white hair in the whiskers of old men, for body painting and as a fly repellent (Australian National Botanic Gardens: Fungi Web Site).
Cultivation of the fruiting bodies has been reported (Jandaik and Kapoor, 1976; Phutela et al., 1998).
The fruiting bodies of P. pistillaris contain 76% moisture, 5% total nitrogen, 22-37% total crude protein, 18.5% carbohydrates, 2.3% total lipids and 2.4% ash (Khaliel et al., 1991). Carbohydrate analysis revealed 15.0% reducing sugars (Gupta and Kapoor, 1990).
A high value for total lanthanides was measured in this mushroom (75 mg/kg dry weight) (Stijve et al., 2001).
In the culture medium of P. pistillaris three epidithiodiketopiperazines were identified as epicorazines A, B and C (Al-Fatimi et al., 2006). These three molecules appear to be structurally identical except for their chirality.
The fungi have been reported to be used in China to treat inflammation (Mao, 2000), but I have not found any scientific evidence that might support this usage.
Antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis have been reported (Panwar and Purohit, 2002). Additionally, antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli is attributed to the epicorazines described below (Al-Fatimi et al., 2006).
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Bioactive components of the traditionally used mushroom Podaxis pistillaris.
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Nutritive value of mushroom Podaxis pistillaris.
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The desert Coprinus fungus Podaxis pistillaris in Western Australia.
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The main constituents and nutritive value of Podaxis pistillaris.
Acta Bot Hung. 1991 36:173–9.
Khaliel AS, Abou-Heilah AN, Kassim MY.
The nutrient composition of Podaxis pistillaris.
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Temperature studies on Podaxis pistillaris.
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Notes sobre el genero Podaxis (Gasteromycetes) en Argentina.
Bol Soc. Argent. Bot. 1971. 14: 73-87.
Panwar Ch, Purohit DK.
Antimicrobial activities of Podaxis pistillaris and Phellorinia inquinans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis.
Mushroom Res. 2002 11:43–4.
Phutela RP, Kaur H, Sodhi HS.
Physiology of an edible gasteromycete, Podaxis pistillaris (Lin. Ex Pers.) Fr.
J Mycol Plant Pathol. 1998 28: 31–7.
Stijve T, Andrey D, Lucchini GF, Goessler W.
Simultaneous uptake of rare elements, aluminium, iron, and calcium by various macromycetes.
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Hymenomycetes from Multan District.
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