Ischnoderma resinosum: The Resinous Polypore Benefits & Identification

The resinous polypore, Ischnoderma resinosum (Schrad.) P. Karst.

Classification

Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota
Class Basidiomycetes
Order Polyporales
Family Hapalopilaceae
Genus Ischnoderma

Synonyms

Boletus fuliginosus Scop.
  Fl. carniol., Edn 2 (Vienna) 2: 470 (1772)
Boletus resinosus Schrad.
  Spicil. Fl. Germ. 1: 171 (1794)
Fomes fuliginosus (Scop.) Fr.
  Grevillea 13(no. 68): 119 (1885)
Fomes resinosus (Schrad.) Bigeard & H. Guill.
  Fl. Champ. sup. France (Chalon-sur-Saône) 2: 356 (1913)
Fomitopsis resinosa (Schrad.) Rauschert
  Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 101(11-12): 641 (1990)
Ischnoderma fuliginosum (Scop.) Murrill
  Bull. Torrey bot. Club 31(11): 606 (1904)
Ochroporus resinosus (Schrad.) J. Schröt.
  Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz 3: 484 (1888) [1889]
Placodes resinosus (Schrad.) Quél.
  Enchir. fung. (Paris): 170 (1886)
Polyporus fuliginosus (Scop.) Fr.
  Epicr. syst. mycol. (Upsaliae): 451 (1838)
Polyporus resinosus (Schrad.) Fr.
  Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 1: 361 (1821)
Scindalma fuliginosum (Scop.) Kuntze
  Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3(2): 518 (1898)
Ungulina fuliginosa (Scop.) Pat.
  Essai Tax. Hyménomyc.: 103 (1900)

Common names

Late fall polypore
Resinous polypore
Benzoin Bracket
Smolokorka buková (Czech)
Løv-tjæreporesvamp (Danish)
Polypore fuligineux (French)
Laubholzharzporling (German)
Gyantás kérgestapló (Hungarian)
Sørlig tjærekjuke (Norwegian)
Smolucha bukowa (Polish)
Ишнодерма смолистая/смолисто-пахучая/Трутовик смолистый (Russian)
Smolokôrovka buková (Slovak)
Sydlig sotticka (Swedish)

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Description

Fruiting body: 5-15 cm diameter x 0.5-3 cm thick, semicircular, sessile, soft and fleshy when fresh and with an anise-like odor; often exuding droplets when young; drying hard, imbricate, effused-reflexed or entirely resupinate, applanate or dimidiate, surface becoming rugose, zonate in mature plants; drying brown, some zones blackish; context fleshy in fresh plants, drying firm and fragile, 3-15 mm  thick, buff to tawny-olivaceous.
Tubes: whitish or brownish grey, 2-6 mm long, wall thin, entire.
Pores: pores whitish-cream, dark grey-brown when dried or bruised, round to angular, 4-6 per mm.

The pore surface of Ischnoderma resinosum
A close-up of the pore surface.

Spore print: white.
Spores:
allantoid to cylindric, hyaline, smooth, 4-7 x 1.5-2.5 µm.
Edibility:
edible when young, but tough and corky when older.
Habitat:
solitary to several on rotten wood of broadleaf and coniferous trees; fruiting summer and fall.

The resinous polypore has demonstrated the ability to effectively decolorize a wide spectrum of chemically and synthetically different various synthetic dyes such as Orange G, Amaranth, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Cu-phthalocyanin and Poly R-478 (Eichlerová et al., 2005 and 2006). These dyes are environmental pollutants, usually carcinogenic or mutagenic, and difficult to remove from the environment.

Description adapted from Shope (1931) and Arora (1986), p. 573.


Bioactive compounds

Lectins

A considerable amount of work has been done to elucidate the properties of the lectin from I. resinosum. The lectin (a dimer of two identical 16 kDa subunits) is inhibited by the monosaccharide β-galactoside, and to a lesser extent by fucose and l-arabinose (Kawagishi and Mizuno, 1988). Later chemical modification and NMR studies showed that a tyrosine residue is in the carbohydrate-binding site of the lectin (Kawagishi and Mori, 1991).

Medicinal properties

Antitumor effects

Polysaccharides extracted from the mycelial culture of I. resinosum and administered intraperitoneally into white mice at a dosage of 300 mg/kg inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich solid cancers by 70% and 80%, respectively (Ohtsuka et al., 1973).

Links

References

Arora D. (1986).
Mushrooms demystified.
Berkeley: Ten speed press. (959 pp)

Eichlerová I, Homolka L, Lisá L, Nerud F.
Orange G and Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorization by white rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Ischnoderma resinosum and Pleurotus calyptratus.
Chemosphere. 2005 60(3):398-404.
Pubmed

Eichlerová I, Homolka L, Nerud F.
Evaluation of synthetic dye decolorization capacity in Ischnoderma resinosum.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 33(9):759-66.
Pubmed

Kawagishi H, Mizuno T.
Purification and properties of a β-galactosyl-specific lectin from the fruiting bodies of Ischnoderma resinosus.
FEBS Letters. 1988 227:99-102.

Kawagishi H, Mori H.
Chemical modification and NMR studies on a mushroom lectin Ischnoderma resinosum agglutinin IRA.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1991 1076(2):179-86.
Pubmed

Kawagishi H.
Mushroom lectins.
Food Reviews International. 1995 11:63-68.

Ohtsuka S, Ueno S, Yoshikumi C, Hirose F, Ohmura Y, Wada T, Fujii T, Takahashi E.
Polysaccharides having an anticarcinogenic effect and a method of producing them from species of Basidiomycetes.
UK Patent 1331513, 26 September 1973.

Shope PF.
The Polyporaceae of Colorado.
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 1931 18(3):287-456.

Wang H, Ng TB, Ooi VEC.
Lectins from mushrooms.
Mycological Research. 1998 102(8):897-906.

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